Author Topic: ROM Formats Ultimate Guide suggestion???  (Read 341 times)

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Offline emufan102

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ROM Formats Ultimate Guide suggestion???
« on: September 02, 2018 - 21:40:45 »
Hi Everyone!!! Hope all your rom set fills meet you well!!!

Just a suggestion, would it possible for talented chap/chapess or a group of awesome people to create the ultimate sticky/guide relating to all the different ROM formats across all platforms discribing what the format is and why it is used.... For example...

Redump.org Format:

is typically cue/multi.bin format and the reasons for this is to preserve audio infomation agaisnt the original, this format may not work with older emulators in multibin format, but can be converted to single cue/bin format, but multibin format is the best format for "archiving" the original CD/DVD and running against Redump.org DAT files.

Redump attempts to retain the original CD/DVD structure as much as possible in digital form including pregap and other crc CD information. Cue/Multibin format may have to be converted to a single cue/bin to work with emulators.

SPS Format:

Software Preservation Format: Typically used for 16bit formats that preserves the original floppy based copy protections and floppy disk structure like Amiga A500, A600, A1200, ect..

Compatibilty with Emulators: Winuae, ect, ect....

Get the jist? I dont think an extensive guide such as this has been produced anywhere? Am I wrong? Thoughts? Ideas? Pointless? A first for Rom Shepherd? ;)

Online D34con

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Re: ROM Formats Ultimate Guide suggestion???
« Reply #1 on: September 03, 2018 - 02:38:28 »
i thought you mean .sfc and .smc for example...
the other things should be really clarified if you visit each depending site...
just not to be bad, i just proclaim to not to use search anymore for others than myself. Its easy. If you got almost fullsets, your missings are often posted together in one.

Offline LordLakitu

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Re: ROM Formats Ultimate Guide suggestion???
« Reply #2 on: September 03, 2018 - 17:59:50 »
RetroArch / Emulationstation is the closest thing nowadays for all multi-system emulation.
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Offline NLS

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Re: ROM Formats Ultimate Guide suggestion???
« Reply #3 on: September 03, 2018 - 20:13:59 »
Hardly.


(btw this is not what the poster wants... he asks about ROM formats)


RetroArch is not an emulator. It is a front-end to libretro architecture, which in turn again is not "emulators" just a unified way to emulation I/O. And yes many emulation "cores" have been ported. Many of them though, old versions.


EmulationNation is a front-end like all front-ends.


Actually BY FAR the closest thing for multi-system emulation is MAME. By so far, that the others can't see it.


But, again, this is not what the OP requests.

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NLS

Offline Retroplay

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Re: ROM Formats Ultimate Guide suggestion???
« Reply #4 on: September 03, 2018 - 20:24:50 »
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And yes many emulation "cores" have been ported. Many of them though, old versions.

Yup, Beetle Saturn is still stuck on old 0.9.48 core, so games like Astal and Shining Force 3 doesn't work 100%. :(
I could use Mednafen 1.12.3 but the CRT shaders in RetroArch has spoiled it for me. ;D
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Offline Connie

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Re: ROM Formats Ultimate Guide suggestion???
« Reply #5 on: September 03, 2018 - 20:25:50 »
I'll edit as I go along:

DO NOT go by a file extention to identify your file (ROM or Disc/Disk dump).

.BIN or .ROM are used extensively when is comes to cartridge (or ROM chip) dumps.

In the 'world of emulation', the greatest misconception is to refer to all 'dumps' as 'ROMs'.
Reading chips and therefore being able to dump (copy) ROM chips would produce a ROM dump.
Taking an arcade board as an example, it would contain multiple ROM chips, and thus, to emulate it correctly, we would need all ROM chip dumps.
From here, we adopted the term, ROMs.

In order to identify cartridge/board/ROM chip dumps, most were correctly identified with an extention .BIN/.ROM
With the arival of magnetic media 360kB, 720KB, 1.44MB, we could now copy or make images of disks. (Note Disk for floppy and Disc for Optical).
This posed a huge problem with copy protection. Manuals/codes, etc. could be copied, but 'ODD' data tracks couldn't - just like a CD 'wobble'.
So most copy protected Disks were 'Cracked'. Usually the main .EXE would be 'fixed' to avoid looking for copy protection, etc.
Fast forward 20+ years, and we now want to re-archive these disks original content and any 'anti-copy' protection.
CAPS (now SPS) started this new preservation using a system called Kyroflux. It could bascially analyze a disk at magnetic flux level (floppy disks are magnetic medium), and create RAW files for each Track (two for double density: 720 to 1.44)

Until the development of optical media - Laserdisc, CD, DVD, Blu-Ray, we only had chips to deal with.
Making images (dumping) of optical media was more difficult.
Bypassing encryption could be done, but making a copy of most optical media discs is almost impossible.
A simple way to avoid piracy was to introduce a 'wobble' in the layout of the disc that a writer (burner) could not copy/replicate.
The best we can do is log these anomalies, and provide a SUB channel file along with the image.

BIN files were typically an image of the whole optical media disk. Correctly done, it would include all data, audio and security tracks. A good BIN software editor should have the option to change between DATA and AUDIO partitions (tracks). PC CD's would often contain a data track and audio tracks (you could play in a CD player) - track 1 would click/skip because it was data, and Audio CD's would have audio tracks and a data track (web links, videos, extras).
BIN files should be/are larger than ISO files. They are a disc image. ISO files should only be an 'image' of the data track followed by seperate audio/security tracks - hence the need for a cue file or other format to give the layout of the original disc.

ISO files would generally be the data part of a BIN followed by separate audio tracks and security tracks. Audio tracks should be a 'Raw' format, but are often ripped with a WAV header, thus creating wav files. ISO files shoud be accumpanied with a CUE file that gives a 'layout' of the disc - usually DATA track followed by AUDIO tracks.

So today, BIN/ISO extentions mean nothing.

Dumps of all kinds of media seem to take on an extention determined by the 'scene' dumping groups:
.sfc/.smc - SuperFamicom/SuperMagiCom - SMC should be the same as SFC but with a 512kb dumper header.
.gcm for GameCube
.wii for Wii
.ds for DualScreen
.3ds for 3Dscreen

But why?
We don't live in an old DOS 8.3 format anymore.
« Last Edit: September 13, 2018 - 02:41:43 by Connie »
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Offline CQLQA1

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Re: ROM Formats Ultimate Guide suggestion???
« Reply #6 on: September 04, 2018 - 12:54:37 »
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ISO files should be accompanied with a CUE file that gives a 'layout' of the disc - usually DATA track followed by AUDIO tracks.

Is this always the case as from what I have seen for PS2 emulation BIN needs a CUE file and not the ISO?

CQL

Offline Maddog

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Re: ROM Formats Ultimate Guide suggestion???
« Reply #7 on: September 04, 2018 - 13:58:57 »
.cue is just an arbitrary text file, pointing out to the location (absolute or relative)  of the actual data files and also laying out the actual data structure of the disc.
It can be used with data tracks that have .BIN, .IMG, .WAV, .RAW or whatever other extension you like. There's no limit on that.

ISO files sometimes can be used on their own if they represent a single-data track disc, but if the disc contains multiple data tracks or audio tracks then you really need to use a .cue to reproduce the correct structure.